Lead image: Paul Smith
For some time now I’ve been fascinated by the claim that fish feeding behaviour is largely influenced by changes in barometric pressure. The fascination started when I read Ronald Reinhold’s book “Predicting the Bite” (ISBN 978-0-578-04734-8) which discusses how to predict when fish will be feeding based largely on changes in barometric pressure. Reinhold is convinced that barometric pressure is responsible for fish feeding activity and has developed a comprehensive set of rules linking barometric pressure to weather patterns and other factors which identifies the “state of ableness” of fish to feed.
While Reinhold obviously put an immense amount of work into developing his rules, they seem to be very specific to his location in the USA and of limited value anywhere else on the planet. I also got the unerring feeling that Reinhold’s theory is predominately based on anecdotal data and not scientific experimentation. He seems to have developed his model based on his diary records and observations and he uses science selectively to reinforce his propositions. It is a powerful dissertation that is unfortunately scant on experimental data analysis.
The problem with Reinhold’s approach is that it seems he was convinced that barometric pressure was central to feeding behaviour from the outset and did not design scientific experiments to prove or disprove his hypothesis. Because of this, his findings are probably flawed due to confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that affirms one’s prior beliefs or hypotheses. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for desired outcomes, for emotionally charged issues, and for deeply-entrenched beliefs. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position.
To confirm my doubts that barometric pressure was central to feeding behaviour I decided to run a 12 month experiment to see if there was any difference in catch rates between the periods Reinhold identified as optimum and the periods which were supposed to be sub-optimal. To cut a long story short, there was no statistically significant difference between catch rates in the optimal and sub-optimal periods. I could find no pattern. For the record, I used a single lure throughout the 12 month period to avoid bias and collect meaningful data. For more details click on:- The single lure experiment
Surprised at the results I then decided to see if I could find an explanation why. During my investigation I found an excellent article in MidCurrent written by Dr. David Ross entitled “The Pressure myth” which provided some insights. Ross writes:-
“FISHERMEN sometimes have ideas or opinions about the marine environment that do not stand up to scientific scrutiny. For example, many anglers believe that changes in barometric pressure strongly influence fish behavior—most notably their willingness to cooperate with anglers. Some have even written that fish can detect a change in barometric pressure before it occurs. An interesting notion, perhaps, though in almost all instances it is incorrect.
A rise or fall in barometric pressure, such as with an approaching cold front, usually means a shift in the weather pattern. And it is the change in the weather, not any fluctuation in barometric pressure, that affects both the fish and the fishing. In fact, most saltwater species probably aren’t even aware of barometric variations.
Pressure, whether in the air or in the ocean, is expressed by scientists as units of “atmosphere.” One atmosphere is defined as the pressure caused by the weight of all the overlying air at sea level—or 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi). Atmospheric pressure is often called barometric pressure because it can be measured by the height of the mercury column in a barometer. Changes in barometric pressure, therefore, indicate capricious weather. In general, low-pressure systems bring unstable conditions, often with precipitation and clouds. A rising barometer means high-pressure is approaching, the harbinger of stable and clear skies.
How much do fish respond to these day-to-day fluctuations? Consider that a normal value for barometric pressure is about 30 inches. Strong high pressure is about 30.70 inches. A powerful low, such as during a hurricane, can reach down to 28 inches or less. The difference between these two extremes (2.7 inches of barometric pressure) is equal to about .09 atmospheres. The barometric pressure difference from a simple passing cold front is only about .06 atmospheres.
The rate of a falling barometer also tells us how fast a low-pressure storm is approaching. A slow-moving storm would have a dip of about .02 to .03 inches of barometric pressure per hour; a fast-moving storm will drop the barometer about 0.05 to 0.06 inches per hour. Simply stated, barometric pressure does not change quickly enough to magically turn the bite on or off. It certainly is one of the ingredients in the overall weather process, but temperature, cloud cover, wind direction and speed, and humidity can also affect fishing conditions. More importantly, the rate and amount of change in barometric pressure is insignificant compared to what’s going on below the surface.
Pressure in the ocean, called hydrostatic pressure, increases with depth due to the weight of the overlying water. Water is almost 800 times denser than air; thus, hydrostatic pressure increases much more rapidly than atmospheric pressure. If you swim or dive just a few feet below the water’s surface, you feel this rapid increase in pressure.
At a depth of just 32.8 feet in the ocean, the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the pressure from the entire weight of the earth’s atmosphere as measured in pounds per square inch. In other words, at 32.8 feet, the total pressure, due to the weight of both the atmosphere and the water, is two atmospheres. At 65.6 feet it’s 3 atmospheres, and so forth. Fish can tolerate hydrostatic pressure because they have a swim bladder containing a volume of gas, which they adjust to equal their environment. This enables most fish to comfortably make small and quick up or down movements in the water column.
In the ocean, four main factors can change the hydrostatic pressure in the fish’s world.
- First, a fish naturally changes pressure around itself by making movements associated with feeding, swimming about, avoiding predators or trying to loose a hook. A small move can result in a relatively large pressure variation. For example, going up or down just 3.28 feet will decrease or increase the pressure on a fish by 1/10 of an atmosphere. One tenth of an atmosphere exceeds any reasonable change that might occur due to a fluctuation in barometric pressure. Equally important, when barometric pressure rises or falls, it can take more than a day to equal the change in hydrostatic pressure that a fish experiences in seconds during its normal up or down movements.
- Second, tides can alter hydrostatic pressure. Assuming the fish stays in the same position, even a small three-foot rise in tide will increase the hydrostatic pressure by about 0.09 atmospheres. A low tide would decrease the hydrostatic pressure by a similar amount. Thus, within about a six-hour period from high to low tide, a fish would experience a fall of about .18 atmospheres of pressure. This is about twice what could be expected from the barometric pressure going through a major drop during a hurricane.
- Third, waves make rapid and continuous changes in hydrostatic pressure. Two-foot waves, for example, will produce a change in pressure of about .06 atmospheres. This rapid change correlates to the period of the waves—about four to six seconds. Higher pressure comes when the crest passes; lower pressure occurs under the trough. When a storm approaches a coastal area, the waves, and the increase in hydrostatic pressure, will be considerably higher than during calm-weather periods.
- The weight of the air itself is the fourth influence on hydrostatic pressure, but its effect is quite gradual. Barometric pressure associated with a major storm will dip (depending on the system’s rate of speed) by only .002 to .02 atmospheres per hour. This gives fish considerable time to make any necessary adjustments. When compared to the effects of the tide, waves, and normal movements of the fish in the water column, changes in hydrostatic pressure caused by barometric-pressure are trivial for saltwater fish. Even a dramatic change in the barometer will be lost to the everyday pressure changes experienced by fish under normal oceanographic conditions.
It’s a happy notion that one could simply consult the mercury column each morning to know whether it’s a better day for work or fishing, but it’s unlikely that barometric pressure alone can trigger the sudden bite that angling’s common wisdom often asserts”.
I also discovered an excellent article by Fisheries Scientist, Ralph Manns, at In-Fisherman.com entitled Barometric pressure and bass which also challenges “one of the most persistent myths in fishing is that barometric pressure controls the activity of bass and other gamefish”.
Manns states that “Although many researchers have tried, scientific studies have been unable to demonstrate that such a relationship exists. Every scientific report we’ve seen, in which barometric pressure was studied, reached a similar conclusion: no direct relationship is evident. This consistency results mainly because no way has been found to isolate barometric pressure influences from simultaneous weather phenomena. We need observations of fish behavior when air pressure changes are the only variable. But significant barometric changes are rare without accompanying changes in wind, temperature, and sky conditions.
The typical weather front is preceded by dropping barometric pressure and increasing cloudiness, while postfrontal conditions usually are clear skies, bright sunlight, and higher air pressure. Although barometric pressure might directly trigger gamefish responses, no mechanism for detecting these changes has been seriously postulated by scientists”.
Manns goes on to describe his field studies in detail and provide some excellent interesting insights into the possible relationship of barometric pressure, weather, and bass behavior namely:-
- When we evaluated actual strikes and refusals of lures presented to bass observed by trackers and divers, we found 52 percent of the bass struck lures during lows compared to only 39 percent during highs. But the vast majority of our strikes took place when the barometer reading was neither particularly high nor low (between 29.30 and 29.70). High or low barometric readings, by themselves, were not consistently indicative of bass activity or catchability.
- When the barometer was falling slowly (less than 0.21 inch per hour), 65 percent of the bass that were presented lures struck, while 35 percent did not. On a slowly rising barometer, only 30 percent struck, while 70 percent didn’t. But our fishing sample was small. The data is confounded by other factors, however. For example, 32 percent of feeding events occurred on solunar majors, only 20 percent on minors, and 27 percent between majors and minors. So solunar influence and other factors may have affected the barometric data. These results don’t necessarily mean that falling barometers increase fishing success or that rising barometers increase offshore activity.
- Barometric pressure changes didn’t provide a positive clue to bass location relative to cover.
- Our bass apparently found little difference between partly cloudy and clear daytime skies, but most likely moved offshore under bright sunlight. Feeding was seen under overcast (42%), broken (23%), scattered (24%), and clear skies (28%). While overcast skies were clearly associated with increased feeding, clouds, even a broken ceiling, had little effect.
- The low light of heavy cloud cover apparently makes prey fish more vulnerable to predators and encourages bass activity. Surprisingly, we documented slightly more feeding activity under totally clear skies than under partial clouds. The maximum brightness of clear skies, which creates optimum feeding opportunities for plankton-eating prey, likely encourages maximum prey fish activity, which in turn may stimulate increased predation.
- When we analyzed the relationships between weather trends and bass proximity to cover, no trends appeared. Virtually the same percent held close to cover before and after a frontal passage, though more were found in cover after the front passed. Bass behavior seems determined by many variables, with no single factor like barometer reading, barometric change, sky condition, wind speed, wind direction, or even prey availability compelling bass to be active or inactive.
- Apparently, the only sure biological fact is that adult bass that have recently fed heavily and are digesting food tend to be inactive or neutral regardless of any environmental factor, including barometric conditions. The length of time since many of the bass in an area fed heavily and the time required to digest that meal are perhaps the most important clues to when a significant proportion of any bass population will next become active.
The last point above is probably the most important of all. If a fish is full then it does not matter what is happening to the barometric pressure it will not be inclined to feed actively. Fish digestion takes much longer than fishermen realise and is heavily influenced by temperature. If the temperature is sub-optimal then it can take days, sometimes weeks, to digest prey which explains why fish in winter are so torpid. I recently wrote an article for AANZ on how fish digestion influences feeding behaviour and this quantifies the effect of temperature on digestion. Click on the following link to read it:- Fish digestion and how it drives feeding behaviour
In summary, there are many factors which govern when fish feed and barometric pressure alone is not an accurate predictor. The science seems to suggest that fish digestion rates, water temperature, weather patterns, water clarity and solunar phase all contribute to when and how aggressively fish feed so it is a wise strategy not to rely on any single indicator. The best plan is to fish as often as possible, even when the conditions and indicators may not appear conducive to fishing. Confining your outings to days when the conditions are “barometrically ideal” means you are missing out on many opportunities.
14 thoughts on “THE BAROMETRIC PRESSURE MYTH”
Keep in mind and eliminate common Cold Front Myths.
Solving myths are sometimes just matters of bringing two or more known things together in a new, more understandable way. Cold Fronts and their add-on changes in atmospheric pressure – thus, an alleged exaggerated bite and shutdown of fish activity, is one such common myth.
Barometric Pressure alone does not change quickly enough, nor have primary effects, to practically turn bass or any other fish on or off. However, it is one of the ingredients in the overall process of fish location features. Associated air and water temperature, time of year/day, cloud cover, wind direction and speed, humidity and yet to be confirmed effects of the dew point also affect fishing conditions. The rate and amount of change in barometric pressure is insignificant compared to what’s going on below the surface because of secondary relationships.
Depending on the geographic altitude and location North to South as well as East to West on a nationwide basis of the lake(s) you key in on there will be changes big and small. Because water is thicker/denser, than air, average water pressure at the 32-foot depth is equal to the pressure of two Air Atmospheres at the surface. Higher altitudes, etc. will change the depth noted. That means in part, that if atmospheric pressure were to play a role affecting that first 32 feet of water the effect is greater at the surface than it is at its bottoming out point.
Consider for a moment that an average normal value for barometric pressure is about 30 inches (mercury). Normal strong high pressure is about 30.70 inches. The powerful atmospheric lows of hurricanes can reach down to 28 inches or less. The difference between these two “normal” conditions (2.7 inches of barometric pressure) is equal to about .09 atmospheres. The barometric pressure difference from a simple passing cold front is only about .06 atmospheres. That .06 atmospheres of pressure, based on the 32-foot example to double the surface pressure, amounts to a depth just barely over a foot and a half from the surface downward, and that is the only layer of water that can reasonably or practically be affected by normal cold fronts. The dynamics of all weather and all temperatures, all locations, etc., can again nullify/change the exact effect.
Have you ever noticed Thunder Storm Lightning and how if the lightning flashes are horizontal in the sky, that the following thunder is softer than when the flashes are perpendicular?
The louder and closer the thunder the deeper and faster the sound hits the water and extends itself deeper into the water column.
Fish will go deeper in the water column with perpendicular strikes to avoid the lightning, but especially the thunder. . . sound speeds up under water and is carrier further in all directions.
The deeper the water combined with underwater structure/cover that blocks the sound, that’s where you will find the fish after the storm passes. It will take about two hours to two days for “Things” in the fish world to begin to get back to normal. . . whatever “normal” (where, when, and why) was before the passing of the storm.
That reference to “all temperatures” includes the temperature of the entire water column. Colder water is denser, therefore the denser or more viscous the water the harder it is to move it. Early and late in the year water is colder at the surface. Throughout the remaining seasons, until the lake turns over, water is colder as it goes deeper. During the spring of the year lake water warms from the top down. The nationwide average water column gets colder at approximately 2 degrees per foot of depth. Again, depending on the location of your lake and its overall properties those numbers can be different.
Waves in and of themselves alter shallow water column water pressure with their peaks and valleys. The combination of surface chop and or waves then can sometimes completely offset any atmospheric pressure changes as they might apply at or beneath the surface.
Meteorologists and Biologists know how fish seemingly respond to these day-to-day barometric changes. They haven’t quite hit the nail on the head yet – but “deep down” (pun intended), they know.
At some time in the late spring or early summer the surface layer of water biologists call a Littoral Zone fully matures as to water temperature. This Littoral Zone will be affected by wind and rain near the surface to change many things there. In that case that layer is pretty much uniform as to temperature. Deeper than the Littoral Zone the temperature gets colder and colder as more depth is added until the development of the thermocline (if any) comes into play.
Totally agreed! Have another Thierry for you. Just finished a trip in mix again and was speaking to a local cut a long story short. He said to me that fish tend to not eat that mush during the day if the moon was shining bright the night before. The locals do lots of night fishing so I’m sure he is on to something… fishing fulling those bellies up at night and not eating during the day? Different species different bite right? Regards Zayne
I’ve noticed that happens in NZ when there is a lot of angling pressure during the day.
This is a great in depth artical. I wonder if the barometer effects dissolved oxygen levels therefor can put fish in different areas of the lake or ocean because it’s easier for them to breath and feed there. Therefore effecting angler ease of catch.
Some Changes to Consider:
After a period of relative consistent-stable weather, Cold Front moves through your area. Cold Fronts are low pressure weather systems. Cold Fronts normally produce (“L”) low atmospheric pressure as they pass and immediate (“H”) high pressure thereafter. There is also the pall of humidity and to a lesser degree the dew point where their partial ability to block ultraviolet rays from the Sun is affected. These four changes alone tend to relocate fish up or down in the water column, or into hiding otherwise even if only through subsequent inactivity. These fish become figuratively attached to , or anchored to protective surroundings, or way of behaving to wait out the changes; equalizing lost stability. The words “up“, “down”, and “into” are both subjective, and objective. Up or down can mean inches, or it can mean several feet depending on where the fish started when the rapid changes occur. It can mean no physical movement at all, but rather a change in attitude, or physiological processes. Objective does mean that the fish will go only as far as they need to go to find acceptable comfort, and they will make this move more or less in a straight line, or direct response to their immediate environment. Indeed, if conditions are right to begin with, fish may not move at all; preferring to hunker down or suspend in place. The fewer environmental changes, or negative stressors fish have to deal with, the better it is for them to function and thrive
But, there can be more “change “.
Cold Fronts usually produce rain and runoff. Falling rain has a different Ph than the lake surface, and that same rain is often of a different temperature; both effecting – changing – the surface or upper layer of the lake. Weather patterns change drastically to much darker than normal skis, and the wind picks up a great deal, putting further chop on the surface. This in turn enhances the darkness below the water’s surface making for both less visibility and greater camouflage through an underwater shadow/ripple effect; promoting unseen movement of predator and prey alike. Predators chase bait during the cold fronts because they know it has changed the core of their life style. They know through life cycle conditioning and genetic inheritance what “changes” are ahead, and how long it might be before they can or will effectively feed again. In one example, this is evident through observation that bait scatters because plankton, the food of many bait fish, rises or sinks or moves more dramatically during these times making it not as easy to be found. Predators are more on the prowl when hunting success is more likely; what better time to achieve their objectives than when conditions are confused and unsettled. The greater the rain, wind, etc. the greater the effect of the combined changes, the deeper more widespread conditions will go.
Runoff produces greater turbidity of the water surface in shallow water. The more rain water, mixed with flora materials, which runs off shore features into the water the greater the turbidity and the longer more far reaching the effect on the water column. This in turn again changes the surface water Ph, light penetration, and the water temperature in the geographical area of the runoff.
It then takes several days of stable weather for all these “Changes” to settle into, or be absorbed by, or mixed into the environment and fish resume greater activity levels. The Change is no longer a factor affecting them. Stability sets in gradually and again changes the environment back to some semblance of normal.
Thought provoking article. Have been fishing for 60 years and can emphatically state that just before a rain storm hits the fishing gets very very good then when the cold front hits your catch rate plummets like a rock. What ever the cause it is universal to the area of the active weather change. The guy that cracks that code will be the rock star of the fishing world.
I fully agree.
I have a log containing over 3000 data points now, there is no indication that barometric pressure in itself affects fish in any way.
Except this: in waters with a silty bottom, a sudden drop in barometric pressure is also a drop in partial pressure of whatever gas is in the substrate. So sometimes with a weather change and rapidly dropping pressure, bubbles appear and it kils the bite momentarily.
Also, I support the theory of ‘time since last major feed’.
Thanks for the kind words Elvo. Really appreciate the feedback.
A very interesting read, with some wonderful links too, thankyou Sir.
Thanks for the kind words Jon. Really appreciate the feedback.
Very interesting. Thanks for the info
Interesting but failed to mention that barometric pressure controls oxygen saturation in water and a increase or decrease in oxygen definitely affects fish !
Might have to right a new one and include a few other effect of barometric pressure changes not mentioned in this article!
You may like to read this Julian:- https://activeanglingnz.com/2017/02/23/the-importance-of-dissolved-oxygen/